With business agility being the new watchword in senior management circles, many enterprises are looking for ways to adopt this into their technology practices. However, it is imperative for such an initiative to go beyond the mere adoption of agile in a few projects.

To run an effective enterprise there are different  systems and applications in every value streams.  There is no one size fit for all. There could be a broad pattern/ classification  like 'Money making applications' 'Applications which bring efficiencies to their operation' and 'Applications which are critical from a regulation and compliance perspective'.

My session is going to focus on experience and patterns that helped in  achieving Agility in the above categories of applications   with respect to  key 'Movers & Shakers' in the system.  


Outline/Structure of the Experience Report

In my session I will be covering following

Enterprise complexity awareness and context ( size, nature) - 5 minutes

Board classification of the IT applications ( Compliance oriented, Efficiency oriented, Money making)   in the portfolio - 5 minutes

Expected Agility outcomes in those application categories - 5 minutes

Profiling of practices, people and tools who are impacted in these systems - 10 minutes

Where to start, why? & how?, what worked and what not in each of the category - 10 minutes

Q&A - 10 minutes 



Learning Outcome

Distinct partners that emerged while bringing Agility in different systems 

Design thinking approach - in looking at expectations and empathizing with people who are impacted from those application categories ( Compliance oriented, Efficiency oriented, Money making)

What worked and what not worked in each of the Application categories

Lessons learnt in these interventions

Target Audience

Directors, Program Managers, Change agents of large enterprise



schedule Submitted 5 years ago

  • Naresh Jain
    Naresh Jain
    schedule 5 years ago
    Sold Out!
    45 Mins

    On Agile teams, collaboration is the way of life. Our leaders want their team members to work closely with each other, have shared goals and even think as one entity. Why? Because we believe that collaboration leads to happier, more productive teams that can build innovative products/services.

    It's strange that companies use the word collaboration very tightly with innovation. Collaboration is based on consensus building, which rarely leads to visionary or revolutionary products/services. Innovative/disruptive concepts require people to independently test out divergent ideas without getting caught up in collaborative boardroom meetings.

    In this presentation, Naresh Jain explores the scary, unspoken side of collaboration and explains in what context, collaboration can be extremely important; and when it can get in the way or be a total waste of time.

  • 20 Mins
    Experience Report

    The role of Leadership in organisation's Agile transformation is a critical piece. Yet many organisations struggle to find the right balance between top-down vs. grass-root transformation. I would like to share an experience where we were able to achieve fairly good grass-root movement, but had serious challenges building the agile mindset at the leadership level. While the leadership was trying to help with the best of their intentions, certain actions, behaviours and patterns did affect the spirit of agility. If you are keen to hear about typical leadership anti-patterns during agile transformation and some pointers on how to avoid them, this session is for you.

  • Anand Murthy Raj

    Anand Murthy Raj / Sundaresan Jagadeesan - Philips - Enterprise SAFe Transformation Journey

    20 Mins
    Case Study

    About the company

    Philips is a healthcare multinational company that focuses on building complete health care products and solutions for emerging markets, in addition to developing solutions and products for global markets, across the three sectors Healthcare, Lighting and Lifestyle. Using the expertise of its nearly 2000 engineers in Bangalore and aligning the marketing and sales teams the campus is responsible for creating and rolling out a complete set of products that include a whole host of solutions for global customers. It also contributes to global solutions in critical health care component development for connected consumer devices and renewable energy.

    Executive Summary

    Beginning of 2014, an external survey brought out the issues wrt time to market and code quality. Taking the survey results positively, the Leadership embarked on an Agile/SAFe journey with pilot projects. The results were amazing and with the currently learning from the pilots, the organization is running 25+ deployments within. The journey has started and Agile release trains are delivering periodic value to our customers at defined frequencies.

    Background Objective/Challenge

    Product quality, consistent & predictive delivery and quicker time to market are the key challenges the organization is trying to address today. Continuous Innovation is constrained due to the above issues and hence there is need to find a new way of product development which can meet the dynamic business needs, foster people engagement and deliver meaningful products to the world.


    ScaledAgile has been used as a framework for product development across the organization global. The whole organization is undergoing a transformation from waterfall way of working to the SAFe agile way of working and roadmap is till 2019.

    Agile Initiative

    The Framework used for the transformation can be summarized into 4 major steps

    1. Develop products in the Agile way with focus on Basic Agile practices (Scrum)
    2. Establish Product Ownership with focus on Enabling Scaling aspects (SAFe practices)
    3. Establish a release pipeline with continuous integration (supported by Automation)
    4. Adopt a DevOps Culture with focus on Continuous delivery (to production environment)

    This includes a comprehensive diagnosis of the various business processes, agile practices and behavior, engineering practices, delivery maturity and recommendations for the transition. A coaching and tooling plan is also an outcome of the diagnostics.

     Measurable Impact

    • Predictable Releases to customers (hitting the market with features every three months with features and business criticial bugs with less than 2 weeks with all the regulatory compliance)
    • Capitalization
    • Feature planned vs Feature delivered per program increment > 80%lose
    • Defect reduction co t 45%
    • Team velocity – Baseline vs actual.
    • Very high sense of ownership and high levels of engagement

    Transformation team Profile

    Global team

    • Agile Capability program manager -1 FTE
    • Agile Deployment Program Management – 1 FTE
    • Communication expert – 1 FTE (Today we are 0/1)
    • Coordination - 1 FTE
    • Enterprise Agile Coaches – 16 (Today we are 9 /16)


  • Evan Leybourn

    Evan Leybourn - If you need to start a project, you’ve already failed #noprojects

    45 Mins

    I want to be controversial for a moment and propose an end to IT projects, project management & project managers. I propose that the entire project process is flawed from the start for one simple reason. If you need to run a project, you've already failed.

    By definition, an IT project is a temporary structure to govern and deliver a complex change (such as a new product or platform) into an organisation. However, to be truly competitive, an organisation needs to be able to deliver a continuous stream of change. Managed properly, this negates the need for a project and the associated cost overheads.

    This is fundamentally what #noprojects is. The approach, structure, tactics and techniques available to successfully deliver continuous change. At its core, #noprojects is predicated on the alignment of activities to outcomes, measured by value, constrained by guiding principles and supported by continuous delivery technologies.

    This presentation will introduce you to #noprojects. You will learn how to define an outcome and create an Outcome Profile. You will also learn how to manage change within the context of an outcome through the Activity Canvas.

  • Ellen Grove

    Ellen Grove - Everything Is Better When We Stick Together: Building Team Working Agreements

    90 Mins

    Whether a team is brand-new or seasoned veterans at working together, explicitly defining and/or refining a team working agreement will help the team to align on how they will work together effectively to meet their common goal. In this fast-paced hands-on session, participants will go through the process of building a team working agreement using LEGO Serious Play (LSP).

    Creating a team working agreement helps team members set the stage for effective communication and high performance by making assumptions about ‘what really matters to us’ and ‘how we will work together?’ explicit and negotiable.  Great working agreements address some difficult topics - what values do we share? how do we want to deal with conflict when it comes up? how will we handle problems within the team? - which are often challenging to discuss openly and honestly, especially when a team is first assembled.  

    This session will show you how to use LEGO Serious Play to encourage a frank and fearless discussion in order to kickstart these discussions so that a team can quickly create a powerful set of simple guiding principles for working together.  Participants will learn about the importance of team working agreements in creating team cohesion and common understanding of shared values and operational guidelines, and experience hands-on how to use the LEGO Serious Play cycle of build-share-reflect to have a participatory discussion to identify shared values, explore reactions to conflict, and build a set of simple guiding principles.


  • Sean Dunn

    Sean Dunn / Chris Edwards - To Estimate or #NoEstimates, That is the Question

    45 Mins

    The #NoEstmates twitter hashtag was intended by Woody Zuill "..for the topic of exploring alternatives to estimates [of time, effort, cost] for making decisions in software development. That is, ways to make decisions with ‘No Estimates’."  Based on twitter traffic it has been successful at generating activity.  It's a bit debatable as to whether it has really spawned much exploration.  In this talk Todd will actually do some exploration using real data from over 50 projects at companies ranging from startups to large enterprises.  In addition to the analysis of the data, Todd was able to build a simulation model of the software development process to both replicate the data to and explore the conditions under which estimates add value and when they do not.  Based on the findings from the data and the simulations, along with an analysis of the types of business decisions that organizations need to make, Todd will provide some pragmatic advice for estimators and #NoEstimators alike.

  • Dan Montgomery

    Dan Montgomery - OKRs - Building Strategic Agility in Your Enterprise

    Dan Montgomery
    Dan Montgomery
    Agile Strategies
    schedule 5 years ago
    Sold Out!
    90 Mins

    Agile is a radical evolution in how we think about work flow – AND how we engage people’s intelligence and commitment in the process. So now we’re doing a faster, better, more engaging job of ….. What? And Why? The “What” and “Why” questions are the stuff of strategy – purpose, vision, customer value, competitive advantage and sustainable financial performance.

     OKRs (Objectives and Key Results) are the missing link between agile practices and alignment with the larger mission and purpose of your enterprise. Developed in Silicon Valley and adopted by industry leaders including Intel, Google and LinkedIn, OKRs are the framework for individuals and teams to set their own goals and align agile action with overall business strategy.

     In this workshop, we will explore

    • How business strategy is evolving from a waterfall model to an agile approach
    • Extending the idea of “cadence” to include ceremonies for enterprise-wide strategic conversations that create “line of sight” for individuals and teams
    • The use of OKRs as goalposts for strategic alignment and agile action
  • Regina Martins

    Regina Martins - The Spiderman antidote to the anti-patterns of Agile leaders

    Regina Martins
    Regina Martins
    Agile Coach and Trainer
    schedule 5 years ago
    Sold Out!
    90 Mins

    Leading in an Agile environment is all about mindset and understanding what motivates people. This interactive workshop will unpack the superhero archetypes of Agile leaders with their related Agile leadership anti-patterns.

    Many leaders come into an Agile environment and feel threatened by a perceived loss of control. Successful Agile leaders empower the team and acknowledge that they can choose their own work and solve their own issues, pull themselves out of the detail and focus on supporting the team, know that if the team succeeds they do too, and are emotionally mature and are not constrained by ego.

    The best paradigm to frame the concept of leadership in Agile is that leadership is encouraged at all levels. As such everyone working in an Agile environment is a leader. In smaller organizations this is probably easy to encourage. In larger organizations, where the “Title” or “Position” predominates defines who is a “leader” and who is not, anti-patterns tend to emerge which do not support an Agile culture, even if it is the organisation’s stated vision to become Agile.

    In this instance the physical manifestations of Agile are put in place such as physical boards, Scrum ceremonies and an attempt at co-location are put in place. The danger here is that the Agile adoption will be a shallow one and will remain superficial. When the awesome magic of implementing Agile right is not achieved then people blame Agile as being the problem. It is not Agile that makes teams, projects and adoptions fail; it is people that cherry-pick those aspects of Agile that they like and are easy to implement that put the adoption on the path to failure.

    All too often leaders dismiss Agile as something the development teams do, rather than as something which affects them too, and that their role is important for its successful adoption. The role of leaders cannot be underestimated to turn a shallow adoption of Agile and make it a deep and lasting change for the organisation’s benefit. In this case, adoption in a small team or program will start the journey toward the tipping point that will make it a lasting organizational change.

    This may cause confusion, manifested as cognitive dissonance, in the leader. They may be asking themselves these questions:

    - How am I supposed to behave in a changing environment?

    - What behaviors am I supposed show to support the values and principles of Agile?

    - How do I support support the teams now?

    This workshop is based on my learnings and experiences as line manager of a development team in a large organisation, and Agile coach in large organisations in how leaders can in many instances unknowingly "sabotage" Agile initiatives, as well as experiential insights on what the enabling leadership behaviours and characteristics are.

    As part of this talk I will share the following:

    • What are the superhero archetypes of Agile leaders.
    • What are the related Agile leadership anti-patterns?
    • Discover the antidote to these anti-patterns (or the good patterns to replace the anti-patterns).


  • Prasad

    Prasad - Speed to Innvoation via pretotyping

    schedule 5 years ago
    Sold Out!
    20 Mins

    Most of the Enterprise today are in a state where the business need to look beyond the aesthetics of a product or the nuts & bolts of a service…
    Where consumer engagement and loyalty count far more than features and benefits alone,  where consumer expect to interact with or even influence suppliers. The new Global Enterprise paradigm is increasingly shifting power into the hands of the end consumers. This empowerment will make consumers more connected, intelligent, more capable of taking good decisions, and certainly more demanding. More connected consumers, automated processes, and sophisticated analytics place unprecedented demands on IT functions.  Only by connecting all the dots between people, ideas, and data can a business drive consumer loyalty, engagement and value.  
    In this session I am going to brief on 'Pretotyping ' concept and techniques to learn on building the right 'it'. Recently I did session on same topic at Digital India conclave.

  • Bennet Vallet

    Bennet Vallet - How Predictable is Your Agile Project

    Bennet Vallet
    Bennet Vallet
    Sr. Principal
    schedule 5 years ago
    Sold Out!
    45 Mins

    “When will it be done?” That is the first question your customers ask you once you start work for them. And, for the most part, it is the only thing they are interested in until you deliver. Whether your process is predictable or not is judged by the accuracy of your answer. Think about how many times you have been asked that question and think how many times you have been wrong. Now think about how much harder it is to answer that question when practicing Agile at scale. Your customers most likely feel like they have better odds of winning the lottery than they do of your next Agile project coming in on time. That you don't know your odds of success is not necessarily your fault. You have been taught to collect the wrong metrics, implement the wrong policies, and make the wrong decisions. Until now. This session will introduce how to utilize the basic metrics of flow to more effectively manage the uncertainty associated with very large scale software development. In it, we will discuss how to leverage the power of advanced analytics like Cumulative Flow Diagrams, Cycle Time Scatterplots, and Monte Carlo Simulations to drive predictability at all levels of the organization. Your customers demand better predictability. Isn’t it time you delivered?

    The metrics of flow provide a comprehensive, analytics driven methodology for agile development at scale. By capturing real-time flow metrics and by using powerful analytical tools such as the Cumulative Flow Diagram (CFD), Cycle Time Scatterplot, and Monte Carlo Simulations one is able to more effectively manage the complexity associated with very large scale software development. Better management of complexity ultimately leads to better predictability.

    Further, these metrics provide transparency at all organizational layers. At the team level the metrics provide real-time information and act as a catalyst for continuous improvement; and at retrospectives the teams will always have the most accurate, critical and objective information upon which to base any action. For Scrum Masters and the team the metrics provide insight and levers to pull. This level of visibility is crucial to decision making as most organizations and teams can perform multiple types of work across varied layers of work-units.

    Similarly, at the enterprise and/or program level the metrics provide the transparency required to effectively manage complex and geographically distributed development and maintenance environments. One is able to track progress, productivity and pro-actively act on systemic issues such as infrastructure concerns, resource capacity, cross-team dependencies, and integration.

    Flow metrics are the most effective means to manage to predictable outcomes in an inherently uncertain field. The use of Scatterplots and Monte Carlo Simulation based on real historical metrics eliminates any need for subjective estimation. At all levels of an organization, these metrics provide much higher levels of confidence and more realistic projections.

  • Sumeet Gupta

    Sumeet Gupta - SCRUMming “The Photosynthesis of Agile TREES (SCRUM Teams) for Software Development”

    Sumeet Gupta
    Sumeet Gupta
    Agile Coach
    Srijan Technologies
    schedule 5 years ago
    Sold Out!
    45 Mins

    SCRUMming: “The Photosynthesis of Agile TREES (SCRUM Teams) for Software Development”

    Photosynthesis is one of the nature’s most sustainable production lines, the minuscule sugar/glucose Factory, by utilizing the energy of the Sun along with inputs of water and carbon dioxide

    Similarly SCRUMming act as “working software” factories , with well defined/refined Product Backlog(derived from Vision/Strategic Themes), along with right Agile cultural mindset and Enablers(Practices/Tools)

    Carbon is chemical backbone for Photosynthesis, like Culture for SCRUMming.

    And Team (TREEs) gets it from the Environment, surroundings, values embraced and the principles followed, around and within the organization. It is one of the most important ingredients for Agile team to function efficiently and transform into high performing teams (the photosynthesis efficient Trees/plants).

    The Correlations:

    Photosynthetic organisms are the primary producers of SUGAR on the planet. They also produce oxygen gas as a byproduct and thus serve as the foundation of life providing food and oxygen for the complex food webs.

    Scrum Teams/Scrum is one of primary holistic approaches/framework to produce working software for complex Projects. They also produce O2 “Operational efficiency” and “Optimized Whole” as byproduct and thus serve as the foundation for High performing Teams and Optimized Organizations for complex Market Needs (Projects)




    Agile/Scrum Teams


    Team Members


    Coordination and Collaboration




    Source of Requirement(Stakeholders, end User, Non-functional)


    Strategic Themes, Use-cases, Ideas

    Visible light

    Product Backlog


    Working Software


    ByProduct(Operational Efficiency and Optimized Whole)

    Calvin Cycle


    Food for thought

    “The Trees that are slow to grow bear the best fruit”

    Build a strong team foundation. Even as per Tuckman’s model, let the team go through the various stages of “Forming, storming, norming, and performing” to get the best results, resulting into high performing agile teams.

    “Don’t cut down the TREEs”

    Don’t break the scrum Teams, as reaching performing stage is difficult if the scrum teams are cut or their make-up shifts a lot, as when a change is introduced teams reach back to forming stage to start over again and adapt to the change.

    “Storms make Trees take deeper roots”

    Let the team struggle, fail small and storm, to “inspect and adapt” and “continuously learning and improving”, this leads to strong team foundation.

    “Be Eco friendly, Save Trees and let them GROW !!”

    Build and preserve the environment/culture for SCRUM teams (trees) and let them GROW!!

    “Love the trees until their leaves fall off, and then encourage them to try again next year.”

    Letting the teams fail small and encourage them to learn and adapt, instead of penalizing them.


    The C4 plants (C4-pathway), the High performing agile Teams …..

  • Kevin Thompson

    Kevin Thompson - Agile Program Management for Large Organizations

    Kevin Thompson
    Kevin Thompson
    Agile Practice Lead
    schedule 5 years ago
    Sold Out!
    45 Mins

    Few organizations have just a single Scrum Team developing products. More often, multiple Scrum Teams must collaborate to build larger, more complex products. The effective synchronization of planning and development across these Teams requires Agile Program Management.
    Scrum achieves the "sweet spot" between too little prescription and too much. The sweet spot for Agile Program Management has been more elusive. Solutions such as DAD (Disciplined Agile Delivery) and SAFe (Scaled Agile Framework) tend to generate too much detail, and either too much or too little in the way of guidance, all at the same time.
    A better approach is needed--one that hits the same sweet spot as Scrum, but at the level of program management.
    This presentation introduces the basic concepts of Agile Program Management by defining the Roles, Ceremonies, metrics, and artifacts relevant to multi-Team collaboration. This lightweight framework is less detailed and less prescriptive than others, yet provides a time-tested and practical solution for ensuring successful collaboration across Teams.

  • Sekhar Burra

    Sekhar Burra - Raising the Bar: Being a true influential agile leader

    Sekhar Burra
    Sekhar Burra
    schedule 5 years ago
    Sold Out!
    90 Mins

    This is a nurturing workshop for Agile Managers to become effective influential servant leaders, to support enterprise agility.

    This is a workshop for Agile Managers and above to help them shed the command and control behavior and be more of a facilitator and coach for their teams. At the end of this workshop, the participants will understand and appreciate the insights and techniques of being an Agile influential leader. The participants also walk out with a concrete action plan on how they support the agile teams and organization. The whole workshop runs on the technique of asking powerful questions to the participants, thus making them think towards the path of self-discovery.

    The number of participants for this session are limited 20-25

  • 45 Mins
    Case Study
    Feature Toggle provides a mechanism for including pending features that take longer than a single release cycle as a part of CI/CD. The technique allows developers to release a version of a product that has unfinished features. These unfinished feature are hidden (toggled) so they do not appear in the delivered version. When the feature is done and complete we can have it as part of the release and the toggle is then removed.
    This session will cover the basics of Feature Toggle along with a technical walk through of code in the session to understand what is Feature Toggle, why we need it and what are the business contexts in which we can use it. The live demo will cover the libraries that support Feature Toggle and we can also talk about the design patterns that can and should be used with this feature. The session will enable us to understand when to use Feature Toggle and what are the lessons learnt on its usage.
  • Avinash Rao

    Avinash Rao - So you need an Agile Coach?

    Avinash Rao
    Avinash Rao
    Agile Program Manager
    schedule 5 years ago
    Sold Out!
    45 Mins

    There are various flavors of “Going Agile” (all real reasons I’ve heard from customers)

    • “The Boss wants Agility so we are implementing Scrum”
    • “Corporate Mandate – All projects will now be Agile”
    • “By going Agile, we want to transform our IT to deliver industry leading productivity and value”
    • “Everyone is being asked to do it, so can you please Agile [sic] my small, irrelevant project over there?”

    Corresponding to the needs of different programs, Agile coaches need to be able to play different roles, using different toolkits depending on the situation.

    In this session, we will present three different flavors of Agile Coaching, each with an example:

    • Agile Coach as Trainer
    • Agile Coach as Expert
    • Agile Coach as Alchemist


    In the ‘Agile Coach as Trainer’ situation:

    • Company or client has already decided to adopt (a certain flavor of) Agile, and the Coach is needed for conversion – Training, Procedures, Ceremonies, and Test-runs; there is low ambiguity.
    • The Agile Coach essentially focuses on the rollout using the methodology already decided upon.

    The Agile Coach is expected to:

    • Bring in a set of rules, procedures and ceremonies that will be replicated across the teams during the rollout
    • Act as the trainer and role-model behavior for the new way of work
    • Success is typically the rate of conversion to Agile, and adherence to the new way of work.


    In the ‘Agile Coach as Expert’ situation:

    • The client has decided to adopt Agile (or one of its variants) and needs a Coach to help transition the identified (frequently large or critical) program to the new way of work
    • There are several ‘How will … ‘ questions that are still open, like:
      • How will the non-Agile dependencies integrate?
      • What does this do to my productivity measure?
      • What process changes are needed to hit the target identified?

    The Agile Coach is expected to:

    • Come in with a Toolkit of Agile, Kanban, Lean techniques that can be applied singly or in conjunction to the situation
    • Tailor the processes to align with the client’s goal, process, and limitations (frequently imperfect from a traditional Agile perspective)
    • Cut through the ambiguity with Expert knowledge on Agile and related processes
    • Be a politician to succeed


    Finally, in the ‘Agile Coach as Alchemist’ situation:

    • Transformations have BHAG and aim to achieve an order-of-magnitude change or improvement.
    • These are neither ‘Hard work’ problems or ‘Technique’ problems; this is not a ‘bend the curve’ process

    The Agile Coach is expected to:

    • Need to create Crucibles through which the team must pass through, and emerge transformed on the other side
    • Guide the team through the Crucibles (which is tailored to the situation) to minimize attrition through the process
    • Align this process to the desired BHAG and outcome


     For each of these situations, we will present an illustration with examples of clients who are facing these different Agile success criteria.


  • Ragunathan Pattabi

    Ragunathan Pattabi / Rajesh Yanuganti - Pair Programming - Myth Busters!

    20 Mins

    Calvin and Hobbes

    “If a task takes 1 hour; it takes 2 hours in pair programming.”
    “This fix is needed urgently; it is better done alone to save time.”
    “It is good only for complicated tasks; there is no need to pair program on simple tasks.”

    These are some of the statements you may be hearing around you from experienced developers to even managers. Sadly, there is lack of understanding of dynamics that make pair programming a key agile engineering practice. This, in turn, resulted in lack of its acceptance in teams adopting agile methodologies. Our mission is to dissect the myths around pair programming which brings continuous learning, productivity, quality, and the joy of collaboration to countless developers every day.


  • Jerry Rajamoney

    Jerry Rajamoney - Coaching / Coach Smells in Agile

    Jerry Rajamoney
    Jerry Rajamoney
    Agile Coach
    schedule 5 years ago
    Sold Out!
    45 Mins
    Experience Report


    • We all know about Code Smells. How about the Agile Coach smells.
    • What I meant here is the bad Behavior of the Agile Coaches which never promoted Agile characteristics.
    • How to figure out the pitfalls of both
      • Agile Coaches
      • Bad Agile Coaching techniques
    • My topic of discussion includes:
      • Agile Coaches smells: [20 minutes]
        • Sell everything by the name of "Agile
        • One solution fits all (like using Scrum for everything)
        • Process dictator (either my way or no way)
        • Insist too much on the metrics to "Track"
        • Upward pleasing behavior [Not challenging the management]
      • Agile Coaching techniques: [15 minutes]
        • Providing solutions for everything without helping them to find out
        • Acting like Subject Matter Expert
        • Consultant rather than Coach
        • Lack of trust
      • Questions & Answers [10 minutes]