Deep Learning has been rapidly adopted in various spheres of healthcare for translating biomedical data into improved human healthcare. Deep learning based healthcare applications assist physicians to make faster, cheaper and more accurate diagnosis. Amongst the several successfully developed healthcare applications, in this case study, I would like to discuss how commonly occurring Dry Eye Disease (DED) can be diagnosed accurately and speedily using deep learning based automated system!

DED is one of the commonly occurring chronic disease in the world today. It causes severe discomfort in eye, visual disturbance and blurred vision impacting the quality of life of patient. Certain factors such as prolonged use of electronic gadgets, old age, environmental conditions, medication, smoking habits and use of contact lens can disturb the tear film balance and can lead to evaporation of moisture from tear film which causes dry eye disease. If DED is left untreated, it can cause infection, corneal ulcer or blindness. However, diagnosis of dry eye is a difficult task because it occurs due to different factors. An ophthalmologist sometimes requires multiple tests or repetitive tests for proper diagnosis. Moreover, we observed the following drawbacks of clinical diagnosis: 1) Higher time in clinical diagnosis as it is done manually. 2) Diagnosis is subjective in nature 3) Accurate severity level of DED is not identified and 4) Medication may be prescribed for incorrect period on the basis of inaccurate severity level. Hence, we have proposed a deep learning based automated approach to diagnose DED considering Tear Film Breakup Time (TBUT) which is a standard diagnostic procedure. Our automated approach is to assist ophthalmologist and optometrist to bring objectivity in diagnosis, to increase diagnosis accuracy and to make diagnosis faster so that ophthalmologist can devote more time in counselling of patients.

To the best of our information, ours is the first attempt to automate TBUT based DED diagnosis. Discussion of this case study will include precise problem statement, steps involved in the solution, data set generated consulting ophthalmologists, experimental results and challenges faced & overcame to achieve this success. Finally, I will briefly discuss the possible extensions of our work and the future scope of research in healthcare sector.

 
 

Outline/Structure of the Case Study

  • Dry eye disease and its complications in patients (7 mins)
  • Issues in clinical screening of dry eye disease (3 mins)
  • Problem statement (2 mins)
  • Proposed deep learning based solution (8 mins)
  • Discussion of dataset (5 mins)
  • Experimental results and discussion (10 mins)
  • Future research directions (5 mins)
  • Q & A (5 mins)

Learning Outcome

  • After attending this session, the attendees will ...
    • understand how potential of deep learning can be utilized to diagnose unexplored or rarely focused diseases.
    • learn how to overcome healthcare challenges using deep learning.

Target Audience

Data Scientists, Machine Learning/Deep Learning Practitioners, Researchers, Doctors, Students & Faculty Members from sectors such as Engineering and Technology as well as Medical.

Prerequisites for Attendees

  • Familiarity with fundamentals of machine learning and deep learning.
schedule Submitted 2 months ago

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  • 45 Mins
    Case Study
    Intermediate

    Deep Learning has been rapidly adopted in various spheres of healthcare for translating biomedical data into improved human healthcare. Deep learning based healthcare applications assist physicians to make faster, cheaper and more accurate diagnosis.

    Amongst several successfully developed healthcare applications, in this case study, I will speak on “Early Detection of Hypothyroidism in Infants using Deep Learning”. Thyroid is a hormone secreting gland which influences all metabolic activities in our body. Hypothyroidism is a common disorder of thyroid that occurs when thyroid gland produces an insufficient amount of thyroid hormone. Deficiency of thyroid hormone at birth leads to hypothyroidism in babies. The common hypothyroidism symptoms in infants are prolong jaundice, protruding tongue, hoarse cry, puffy face, pain and swelling in joints, goiter and umbilical hernia. During the early stage of hypothyroidism, babies may not have noticeable symptoms and hence, doctors (Physicians, Paediatricians and Paediatric Endocrinologists) face difficulty in recognizing hypothyroidism in infants. If hypothyroidism in infants isn’t treated during early stage, severe complications such as mental retardation, slower linear growth, loss of IQ, poor muscle tone, sensorinueral deafness, speech disorder and vision problem may arise. Due to these complications, infant’s growth cannot be proceeded as healthy infants. To prevent such complications, we have designed and developed a novel approach to diagnose hypothyroidism in infants using deep learning during its early stage. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first attempt to classify infant as either healthy infant or suffering from hypothyroidism based on only facial symptoms viz. puffy face, jaundice, swelling around eyes, protruding tongue and flat bridged nose with broad fleshy tip to diagnose hypothyroidism. The classification output is a probability of hypothyroidism to assist doctors to identify hypothyroidism only from the facial image of infant in the initial phase.

    The discussion of this case study will include precise problem statement, the major steps involved in the solution, data set created consulting several Endocrinologists, experimental results and challenges faced & overcame to achieve this success. Finally, I will briefly discuss the possible extensions of our work and the future scope of research in healthcare sector.