Dependency Injection in the Page Object Model

The Page Object Model is awesome, but you can make it even better with Dependency Injection.  I'll show you how to get started and some benefits of using Spring IOC in your Page Objects.  Though the concepts of this talk can be extended to any language, the examples will be shown in Java.

 
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Outline/structure of the Session

What is DI? A brief overview of the concept.

Adding DI to your Framework.

How and where to use DI in the Page Object Model

Tricky things and how to get around them with DI.

Learning Outcome

Walk away with the ability to implement DI in your own Page Objects and Framework.

Target Audience

Developers and Advanced Selenium Users

schedule Submitted 2 years ago

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  • Dave Haeffner Test
    By Dave Haeffner Test  ~  1 year ago
    reply Reply

    Please specify the programming language that this is for.

  • Anand Bagmar
    By Anand Bagmar  ~  1 year ago
    reply Reply

    Why do we need DI? How will it help, and in what situations in test automation framework?

    • Anthony Browness
      By Anthony Browness  ~  1 year ago
      reply Reply

      In Page Object Model it's not uncommon to have a bunch of boiler plate to set-up Page Objects such as Page Factory, With DI you can creat a @PageObject annotation on your Page Objects have the ApplicationContext utilize a custom BeanPostProcesor to cut away this boilerplate.  Further Page Objects tend to need the WebDriver object provided during instantiation so you tend to create a massive chain of Page Objects passing the driver in order to create the next Page Object. 

      With Inversion Of Control, you can pull the WebDriver object from the ApplicationContext wherever it's needed, thus cleaning up Page Object code immensely.  You can even conjure up other Page Objects from the context when needed, making it easier to pass a reference to another page in a method that would return another Page Object. 

      When Page Objects are Processing Scoped and the WebDriver object is tied to a test thread, each Page Object is inherantly thread-safe, as a result multi-threaded/concurrent exection of test methods is simple to configure and run.

      Within a Test Automation Framework you commonly create utility classes to perform and facilitate various actions, such as take a screenshot, performing an assertion, creating and logging in with a user, etc.  In order to complete these actions one can either instantiate the class by passing in a reference to the WebDriver object, or create static methods and pass the WebDriver object to each static method call, with DI you can autowire in the WebDriver for these objects, or even autowire in the objects themselves. 

      When examining any Test Automation Framework there are always overly complex constructors, factories, or builder patterns to faciliate testing.  DI effectivly abstracts most of this complexity, thus creating cleaner and more effective code. 

      For example, I have a framework that supports: Spring DI, Page Objects, Test Configuration, All major browsers, Grid connectivity, Multi-threaded test execution using the "method" type, Rerunning of failed tests(run iterations), and Screenshots by run iteration. 

      This framework is about 18 Classes, 500 lines of Java code excluding comments, all without utilizing or locking down the @before method.  With this framework, a tester only needs to setup desired configuration(browser, threads, grid), create the Page Objects and annotate them with @PageObject. Then create their test class,extend AbstractWebdriverTest autowire in their PageObjects and write a test. 


  • Anand Bagmar
    Anand Bagmar
    schedule 2 years ago
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    45 mins
    Demonstration
    Intermediate

    Typically in organizations, there are multiple projects / products. These products may be of implemented using tech-stacks over many years. Yet - they interact with each other in some way. To manage the complexity around Test Automation, many organizations prefer to have a common Test Automation solution across these products in an effort to build, standardize and maintain the framework.

    However, this is not a good idea! With this approach one potentially ends up having to compromise on the quality of automation that can be done for each product, limited by the toolset.

    The better approach would be to use the tools and technologies that are "right" for each product. This does have other disadvantages, but you would ensure each product is well tested! The only missing piece which remains is that these different products talk with each other. You need to test the integration between them in an automated way to verify all is well.

    "TaaS" is an open-source product solution that allows you do achieve the "correct" way of doing integration testing across a variety of products via Test Automation.

    Example: 

    For one set of products, Selenium-based toolset may be the right choice, where as for legacy reasons, QTP may be used for some other product. With TaaS - you will be able to automate the Integration Testing between these products, by re-using the tests already implemented in the individual product suites.

     

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    Automation Alchemy On a Mass Scale: Turning Costly Manual Tests Into Automation Gold

    Priyanka Gupta
    Priyanka Gupta
    Sarah Eisen
    Sarah Eisen
    schedule 1 year ago
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    45 mins
    Talk
    Beginner

    Do you want to hear a story about overcoming obstacles and achieving seemingly unattainable goals at a massive scale? Well, we have one to tell - it’s a true story, and like all good stories, teaches us some valuable lessons. We have gone through the ups and downs of this tale and come out better and smarter. We would love to share those experiences and learning with everyone.

    The story starts with a mission...automate 5000 hours of manual tests for our enterprise product. Like many other product based companies, we had one big monolithic application to test. The mission was to be accomplished with the resources available - no new magical dream team, we had to work with the resources we had - QA analysts with no technical background, a very small automation team, and a huge offshore manual testing group. Go figure! There was another twist - we had to accomplish our mission without dropping the current level of support for testing our enterprise application, including regression and new feature tests. Doesn't it all sound very familiar?

     

    This presentation will cover all aspects of our journey from the beginning to the end. We went through a lot of ups and down, and every single decision we made taught us a great deal. It is those experiences that we want to share with everyone.

    • We created a tool that wrapped the Selenium API in order to make it easy for non developers to write tests. The tests were written in a Domain Specific Language that made Selenium API calls with some application specific logic added in.
    • We needed to build our own execution framework to support our growing automated test base. The framework offered many customized features and was able to sustain 60,000 hours of tests running every single day.
    • We wrote our own best practices and worked closely with the QA team to make sure everyone wrote high quality tests.
    • The results from the tests needed to be displayed in a way that made sense. We created several different dashboards for that purpose and had many different views of the test suite performance, including a heat map to highlight problem areas.
    • Elasticsearch and Kibana were instrumental in helping us parse through the massive volume of test results and make sense of them, giving us metrics in different forms.
    • Daily environment setup for this execution was also massive - 100 or so slaves and several SUTs for every codeline, with support for 3 codelines meant that we needed a big lab setup.


    We successfully completed the mission of automating the manual test behemoth and gained a rich understanding of test automation at scale along the way.

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    rubytester
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    Demonstration
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    • `docker-selenium` project is about packaging selenium grid as docker containers (https://github.com/seleniumhq/docker-selenium)
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    In this talk/demo/case study I will show you how you can use `docker-selenium` project to build several pipelines starting from running on your local dev box to public cloud for quick tests and finally to a stable private cloud for your team.

     

  • Liked Adam Carmi
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    Advanced Automated Visual Testing With Selenium

    Adam Carmi
    Adam Carmi
    schedule 1 year ago
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    45 mins
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    Automated visual testing is a major emerging trend in the dev / test community. In this talk you will learn what visual testing is and why it should be automated. We will take a deep dive into some of the technological challenges involved with visual test automation and show how modern tools address them. We will review available Selenium-based open-source and commercial visual testing tools, demo cutting edge technologies that enable running cross browser and cross device visual tests at large scale, and show how visual test automation fits in the development / deployment lifecycle.

    If you don't know what visual testing is, if you think that Sikuli is a visual test automation tool, if you are already automating your visual tests and want to learn more on what else is out there, if you are on your way to implement Continuous Deployment or just interested in seeing how cool image processing algorithms can be, this talk is for you!

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    The Mobile JSON Wire Protocol

    Jonathan Lipps
    Jonathan Lipps
    schedule 1 year ago
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    45 mins
    Talk
    Intermediate

    The JSON Wire Protocol (JSONWP) is the version of the WebDriver spec currently implemented by all the Selenium clients. It defines an HTTP API that models the basic objects of web automation---sessions, elements, etc... The JSON Wire Protocol is the magic that powers Selenium's client/server architecture, enables services like Selenium Grid or Sauce Labs to work, and gives you the ability to write your test scripts in any language.

    The JSONWP has served Selenium faithfully for a number of years, but the future of automated testing lies beyond the borders of the web browser. Mobile automation is an essential ingredient in any build, and tools like Appium or Selendroid have made it possible to run tests against mobile apps using the JSONWP. The JSONWP's current incarnation isn't enough to automate all the new behaviors that mobile apps support, however. Complex gestures, multiple device orientations, airplane mode, and the ability to use both native and web contexts, for example, are all essential to mobile automation.

    For this reason the leaders of the Selenium project, in concert with other Selenium-based projects like Appium and Selendroid, met to discuss the future of the JSONWP. We've been working on its next version, called the "Mobile JSON Wire Protocol" (MJSONWP). Appium and Selendroid already implement much of the MJSONWP spec. In this talk I'll dive into the specifics of the MJSONWP extensions, how they relate to the original JSONWP, and how the Selenium clients have begun to implement them.

    Finally, I will talk about the future of the MJSONWP and how it's related to the current and future versions of the WebDriver spec. I'll share how you can get help with the creation of the MJSONWP, and discuss issues with the authors of the new spec before the API is set in stone. We need the help of everyone who's involved in mobile automation to come up with the best and most future-proof version of the MJSONWP. Ultimately, your understanding of how Selenium works will be improved, and you'll have a much better handle on how projects like Appium and Selenium work together to make sure you have the best automation methods available.

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    There has been a recent explosion in second-screen technologies such as Chromecast, but designing test automation for second-screen applications is far from straightforward. This new paradigm lacks major automated tool support, and coordinating test execution across multiple devices is tricky and error-prone.

    Our automation solution uses WebdriverJS and WebSockets to perform end-to-end test automation that covers our web player controller and second screen application.

    Learn about our approach to second-screen automation which we’ve used to build a reactive, responsive test suite. We’ll describe our solutions to synchronizing test flow between the controller and target device, validation on the device, targeting different integration components, and device management.

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    Xiaoxing Hu
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    If a test fails in the woods and no one is there to see it does anyone care, does anyone even notice. What happens when failing tests become the norm and you can't see the wood from the trees? 

     

    After watching last years Allure Report presentation I was inspired.  Selenium tests (and automation tests in general) are often poorly understood by the team as a whole.  Reports/emails go unread with tests failing becoming an expected outcome rather than a glaring red flag.  We looked at what Allure brought to the table and from that base created a dashboard which was designed to:

    • Display the results of test runs in a way that was useful to managers, testers and the rest of the development team.  Including tools to filter out specific test runs and view the overall trend of the test run results.
    • Make debugging tests easier by grouping errors, displaying history of test results, filtering tests and offering visual comparison of test runs.
    • Help mitigate the problems flaky tests cause with test run result reporting (say that three times fast).
    • Help with our mobile device certification process, by easily providing a view to compare test runs across devices.

    Since it's creation the dashboard has been used and praised by managers through to developers.  With our full suite of tests from unit to integration to selenium and appium being stored on the dashboard.  We've managed to:

    • Decrease the time taken to debug test cases.
    • Increase the visibility of all our test suites, with managers having a better idea of how our selenium test suite is progressing and testers better understanding the coverage of unit tests.
    • Focus the organization on quality.

    We are working with legal at present to have this project open sourced and available to all prior to Selenium Conf 2015.

  • Liked Ragavan Ambighananthan
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    Distributed Automation Using Selenium Grid / AWS / Autoscaling

    Ragavan Ambighananthan
    Ragavan Ambighananthan
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    45 mins
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    Speed of UI automation has always been an issue when it comes to Continuous Integration / Continuous Delivery. If UI automation suite takes 3 hours to complete, then any commit happens during this time will not be visible in test environment, because the next deployment will happen only after 3 hours. 

    With 2000+ developers and average 250+ checkins per day, the above issues is replicated 250+ times every day. This is not productive and feedback cycle is super slow!

    Another issue is , with 35+ different project teams using 10 or more different jenkins jobs to run their UI automation. So many jobs means (350+), individual teams need to go through the pain of managing their own jenkins job, its a duplicate effort and waste of time. Automation teams need to spend time on writing reliable automation and not managing jenkins jobs.

    Solution is to reduce the UI automation run time from hours to minutes and also use only handful of jobs to run the Distributed Automation!

    Goal: To run all UI automation scenarios within the time take by the longest test case

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    Sveta Kostinsky
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    45 mins
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    Today, mobile is increasingly trumping web as the most important brand engagement point; enterprises are moving away from mobile and web projects independent of each other. The rapid adoption of responsive web encourages teams to discover one approach to measuring software quality regardless of form factors.

     

    Selenium is current market leading solution for web testing, but how does it stand with mobile? The truth is that working with Selenium presents a few challenges, including:

    • Building and maintaining an internal structure to support it
    • Bridging an architectural gap
    • Requirements demand support for unattended test execution
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    There is a solution to address these challenges!

    Let’s work through a demo and show how to test mobile & web in parallel with Selenium

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    Selenium Conference 2014 in Bangalore was the first time got a chance to attend this event. During the event got exposed to lots of brilliant ideas and experiences shared in various talks.

    In last one year had opportunity to try some of them which resonated within Automation Community of our organisation. As part of this talk would like to share our experiences, which might help participants to get it done right first time.

    A. Getting the right test pyramid: The idea of having Unit Tests, Integration Tests and GUI Tests in right proportion makes perfect sense. In this part of talk I would like to take you through our efforts to beef up the Integration Tests. It was a two pronged strategy. First automated backend api tests using BDD and some python modules.
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    B. Appium for Mobile Automation: Our test infrastructure didn't have capability to support Mobile Automation. To support the Mobile First approach catching up and requirement of rich user experience on mobile for our service we needed Appium.

    In this part of talk will share our experiences enabling existing tests to run on Mobile devices using Appium and with iOS/Android emulators, real devices, SauceLabs.

    C. Using third party infrastructure service instead of local grid:  Idea of not maintaining the test infrastructure and growing number of tests on web and mobile made us look in this direction. We chose SauceLabs as the preferred infrastructure service. This part of talk will cover how we went about trying SauceLabs, challenges we have faced and some pros and cons of using SauceLabs.

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    Russell Rutledge
    Russell Rutledge
    schedule 1 year ago
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    45 mins
    Talk
    Advanced

    A big blocker for putting a website on truly continuous production delivery is the amount of time it take to validate that the site works correctly.  Tests themselves take time to run, and test results are unreliable to the point where it takes a human to investigate and interpret them.  When counting the time that it takes to both run and interpret results, test runs for an enterprise web site can take an entire day from inception to useful result.

    This session describes common points of failure in test execution that add both latency and unreliability and what can be done to overcome them while still preserving the value of UI validation.  We'll discuss why, after addressing these concerns, UI can be unblocked to reliably field thousands of validation scenarios on a local machine in a matter of minutes. 

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    David Giffin
    schedule 1 year ago
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    45 mins
    Talk
    Beginner

    Manual Testing.  Depending on how you've been influenced by those two simple words, reactions vary from slight disgust to full-on depression.  Of course, the solution is clear: automate, but how do you get there when your company is continually pushing out the next big feature?  As the set of features to cover increases, the lack of scalability of manual testing becomes more apparent.

     

    This is a problem that we struggled with at our company.  Automation tactics were explored and implemented, but problems persisted as proposed solutions did not cater to the demands of the manual testers.

     

    After years of failure and disappointment, our latest stint resulted in success.  Not only do we have hundreds of automated tests across various platforms (mobile and web) and products, but manual testing has been eliminated with zero casualties.  As we move forward towards Continuous Delivery and improved automation performance, we wanted to take this moment to look back and share stories of failure and success.

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    vishnu nallani chekravarthula
    vishnu nallani chekravarthula
    schedule 1 year ago
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    45 mins
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    Intermediate

    Element Locator strategies for Selenium WebDriver are highly flexible, and have been later inherited by many commercial tools. Although the locator strategies are flexible, they are also limited in a sense that, Selenium WebDriver does not currently allow its users to identify/filter UI elements with multiple locator strategies(at a time), as many commercial tools do.

    The solution discussed in this article describes a library that allows Selenium WebDriver users to extend the Selenium element locator strategies for Element Filtering and few use cases for the library.

    The solution approach allows users to continue to use the existing UI Element definitions in their tests, and extend them, using the By reference. The library will replace the existing Selenium WebDriver “By” reference.

    Filtering based on multiple locator strategies

    There are various scenarios where to uniquely identify an UI element, a complex XPath has to be written. However, the element can be identified uniquely using multiple locator strategies for the UI Element. The UI Elements can also be filtered, when there are multiple matches in a page. This is the UI Element recognition mechanism used in many commercial test automation tools.

    The algorithm for filtering UI Elements based on multiple locator strategies is based on priority of locator strategies. The priority of locator strategies when filtering is:

    1. ID
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    3. TagName
    4. ClassName
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    6. LinkText and PartialLinkText
    7. CSS

    The By.elementFilter method takes multiple locator strategies, and searches the page for elements matching a particular locator strategy/property, and checks if it is a unique match on the page, if not then it uses the next locator strategy passed to it and so on.

    This method is also very helpful when the application undergoes constant changes and UI Elements might have either of XPATH, ID , NAME, TagName, ClassName etc still unchanged. That way, it helps reduce a lot of maintenance effort in Selenium WebDriver implementations which is due to UI element changes.

    Filtering based on Index

    When there are multiple similar UI Elements in a page, such as cells in a grid/table, it makes sense to identify objects based on their Index based on their appearance on the web page.

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    Filtering based on relative element

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    Filtering for Tables

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    html tag, the By.tableFilter method allows the user to quickly identify specific cells in the table, without having to write complex XPaths or logics to achieve the same.

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    Justin Ison
    Justin Ison
    schedule 1 year ago
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    45 mins
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  • Surendran Ethiraj
    Surendran Ethiraj
    schedule 1 year ago
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    45 mins
    Demonstration
    Intermediate

    The evolution of Test Automation started with automation tools that had record and playback features.  This allowed Automation Testers to record and structure the script in such a way that it could be reused. Tools like Selenium, which provided APIs, could interact with different browsers. The Automation Testers could use these APIs to interact with web applications. Additionally, it was possible to develop frameworks for reusing each of the components of the framework. Currently, the focus has shifted more and more towards the designing of frameworks rather than just the tools, so that the testing framework could be integrated with test management applications and continuous integration tools to aid test-driven development.

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  • Dipesh Bhatewara
    Dipesh Bhatewara
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    Bhumika S
    Bhumika S
    schedule 1 year ago
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    45 mins
    Talk
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  • Anand Bagmar
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    45 mins
    Talk
    Beginner

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    Jason Watt
    Jason Watt
    schedule 2 years ago
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    45 mins
    Talk
    Intermediate

    Creating a mobile app is now the new cross platform problem. The major mobile platforms tend to gear their development tool chain towards individuals and their workstations.  But what if you want to introduce a CI solution to this environment? What if your app is launching on more than one platform and there's a team of 20+ developers working on it? What if your tests are more than just Selenium based?

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  • Liked Mike Levin
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    Selenium meta hub – scalable and redundant infrastructure

    Mike Levin
    Mike Levin
    schedule 2 years ago
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    45 mins
    Talk
    Intermediate
     
    Selenium grid is widely used in lots of companies and projects. Unfortunately with the current open source implementation one can not run more than one hub which can cause various problems due to hardware or network instability. Single hub architecture is also hardly scalable, at least it requires hardware upgrades for the hub.
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    During these years we were using client side balancing approach: client applications were always obtaining a browser via a special internal library. It knew the configuration of all the hubs and browsers and was performing the search for an available node on request.
    But when it came to the different test frameworks, different languages and different runtimes this approach became difficult to support. As long as test practices move from test engineers to development teams the diversity of frameworks and runtimes increases. So we come up with meta hub solution.
     
    Our meta hub solution has the following basis:
    • Stock versions of selenium and selenium grid
    • Stock web driver interface for the client
    • Virtual infrastructure. We use Openstack for all parts of our infrastructure. It’s not necessary but It makes sense.
    • Fixed load for each hub and node – scalability via adding new hubs with fixed volume.
    • Redundancy and scalability
    • Stateless solution for meta hub. No storage requires to keep state between several meta hub nodes
     
    We made solution that includes:
    • Proxy software between client and multi-hub grid installation
    • Some configuration adjustments for hubs/nodes.
     
    I'll talk about our solution. We going to go open source on the SeleniumConf conference or earlier.